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For Charter School ordering information click here, School-Ordering

Brings students of all skill levels to the knowledge required for Pre-Algebra. Useful as an intervention math course and/or grade6.

Pre-Algebra builds off of Foundations and prepares students for a successful algebraic education. Unlock Pre-Algebra will explain in an easy to understand method as what seems complex becomes understandable. The course reviews topics such as integers, fractions, decimals, percent, and geometry, while introducing students to new topics.

The course begins with an emphasis on linear equations, functions and inequalities before introducing more advanced functions. Topics covered in these units include solving linear equations, calculating slope and rate of change, graphing linear functions and inequalities, and using linear functions to analyze real world problems. Non-linear functions including quadratic, exponential, rational, and radical functions make up the bulk of the subject matter in the middle of the course. These units cover topics such as operations with exponents, exponential decay and growth, graphing, factoring and solving quadratic functions, graphing and analyzing radical and rational functions, and transformations of various functions. Other important topics such as systems of linear equations, trigonometry, sequences and statistics round out the end of the course curriculum. Topics in these units include solving systems of equations with substitution, elimination and graphing, using the basic trigonometric ratios and graphing their functions, arithmetic and geometric sequences, measures of central tendency and measures of spread. In this course, students will apply both algebraic concepts and graphical methods to solve real world problems.

Topics covered in this course include logic and reasoning, distance and length, angles, polygons, circles, perimeter, area, the coordinate plane, transformations, trigonometry, volume, surface area, and probability. Students will using logical thought processes to prove theorems involving segments, lines, angles, triangles and circles. Students then use these theorems to analyze and solve problems with these geometric figures. Students use the coordinate plane to view geometry with a more analytical perspective. On the coordinate plane, students will calculate distances, slope, area and perimeter, and perform transformations on points, segments and polygons. Students also learn to find surface area and volume of three dimensional objects and solve application problems. Lastly, students study probability and make analytical decision based on calculations involving independent and dependent events, the fundamental counting principal, compound probability, set theory, permutations and combinations.

This course is best taken in between Algebra I and Algebra II. While not a direct successor to Algebra I, Geometry requires that students have a strong foundation of algebraic skills in order to manipulate equations and solve problems that arise in Geometry. By completing Geometry, students become better prepared for Algebra II, improving their problem-solving skills, abstract and critical thinking, spatial awareness, and logical reasoning.

Algebra II is the direct successor to Algebra I and builds on each of the concepts studied within it. An emphasis on functions returns as the functional families learned in Algebra I are studied in more detail. Algebra II expands on quadratic, polynomial, exponential, radical and rational functions and introduces logarithmic functions. Students learn how to use and operate on complex numbers so that complex solutions of quadratic and polynomial functions can be considered. After studying these functions, the focus shifts to more advanced algebraic concepts such as conic sections, trigonometry, series and summations, and statistics. Students examine the properties of parabolas, circles, hyperbolas and ellipses, and write equations representing each. Students also study advanced applications of trigonometry including graphing the reciprocal trig functions and modelling the primary trig functions. In statistics, new topics include sampling methods, normal distribution, probability, and margin of error.

Algebra II plays a crucial role in preparing students for upper level math courses such as Calculus. This course focuses on more abstract and theoretical concepts, allowing students to improve their critical thought processes.

Pre-Calculus builds on the concepts of Algebra II and prepares students for Calculus, and moreover, post-secondary mathematics. The course begins with a review of functions and quadratics and expands on polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric functions. Slant and parabolic asymptotes are introduced to rational functions. Pre-Calculus also expands upon complex numbers and conic sections; introducing the complex plane and parametric functions. New units include vectors, matrices, analytic trigonometry and polar coordinates. The course concludes with a review of sequences and series, and finally, an Introduction to Calculus.

Introduction to Numbers

Base Ten

Natural and Whole Numbers

Comparing

Place Value Part I

Place Value Part II

Rounding

Estimating

Introduction to Addition and Subtraction

Multi-Digit Addition

Multi-Digit Addition Part II

Multi-Digit Subtraction

Multi-Digit Subtraction Part II

Introduction to Multiplication

Multiplying 10’s, 100’s, & 1000’s

Multi-Digit Multiplication

Multiplying 2-digit Numbers

Multiplying 3-Digit Numbers

Introduction to Division

Simple Division

Long Division

Long Division with 3 & 4 Digits

Division with Remainders

Division with Remainders Part II

Introduction to Integers

Integers on a Number Line

Comparing Integers

Absolute Value

Adding Integers

Subtracting Integers

Multiplying Integers

Dividing Integers

Introduction to Exponents

Expanded and Exponential Form Part I

Expanded and Exponential Form Part II

Calculating Exponents

Negative Numbers with Exponents

Exponents of 1 and 0

Exponents in the Real World

Intro to Order of Operations

Parentheses & Brackets

Commutative Property of Addition

Commutative Property of Multiplication

Associative Property

Fact Families

Factors

Prime Factorization

Greatest Common Factor

Multiples

Lowest Common Multiples

Divisibility

Divisibility Part II

Introduction to Fractions

Equivalent Fractions

Simplifying Fractions

Comparing Fractions

Ordering Fractions

Adding and Subtracting Fractions

Adding and Subtracting Fractions Part II

Multiplying Fractions

Dividing Fractions

Dividing with Reciprocals

Introduction to Mixed and Improper Fractions

Converting Mixed to Improper Fractions

Converting Improper to Mixed Fractions

Comparing Improper and Proper Fractions

Comparing Improper and Mixed Fractions

Adding and Subtracting Improper Fractions

Adding and Subtracting Mixed Fractions

Adding and Subtracting Mixed Fractions Part II

Multiplying Improper and Mixed Fractions

Dividing Improper and Mixed Fractions

Introduction to Decimals

Place Value of Decimals

Rounding Decimals

Comparing Decimals

Adding Decimals

Subtracting Decimals

Multiplying Decimals

Dividing Decimals

Dividing Numbers Without Remainders

Terminating and Repeating Decimals

Converting Fractions to Decimals

Converting Decimals to Fractions

Rational and Irrational Numbers

Intro to Ratios

Ratio and Proportion

Unit Rate

Unit Price

Percent

Percent Part 2

Finding Percent of a Number

Discounts, Sales and Tax

Intro to Geometry

Points, Lines and Lengths

Measuring Angles

Types of Angles

Triangles

Squares & Rectangles

Rhombuses & Parallelograms

Perimeter

Introduction to Area

Area of Squares and Rectangles

Area of Triangles

Introduction to Data Management

Mode

Median

Mean

Pictographs

Bar Graphs

Line Graphs

Scatter Plots

Stem and Leaf Plots

Introduction to Whole Numbers

Place Value of Whole Numbers

Rounding Whole Numbers

Roman Numerals

Patterns

Introduction to Integers

Integers & Absolute Value

Graphing Integers on a Number Line

Comparing & Ordering Integers

Adding Integers

Subtracting Integers

Multiplying Integers

Dividing Integers

Introduction to Variables & Expressions

Writing Expressions

Evaluating Expressions

Order of Operations

Equivalent Expressions

Evaluating Expressions using Substitution

Properties of Real Numbers

Like Terms

Distributive Property

Introduction to Rational Numbers

Divisibility

Factors & Multiples

Prime Numbers

Prime Factors

Exponents

Greatest Common Factor

Least Common Multiple

Introduction to Fractions

Equivalent Fractions & Simplifying

Mixed Numbers & Improper Fractions

Multiplying Fractions

Reciprocals

Fractions – Relating Multiplication & Division

Fractions – Cancelling to Simplify Multiplication

Adding & Subtracting with Like Denominators

Comparing Fractions

Adding & Subtracting with Unlike Denominators

Introduction to Equations

Problem Solving with Equations

Solving Equations Using Addition & Subtraction

Solving Equations Using Multiplication & Division

Solving Equations Using Reciprocals

Solving Multi-Step Equations with Variables on Both Sides

Solving Multi-Step Equations with Fractions

Writing Equations

Introduction to Inequalities

Graphing Inequalities on a Number Line

Adding & Subtracting Inequalities

Multiplying & Dividing Inequalities

Conjunctions & Disjunctions

Solving Inequalities

Introduction to the Coordinate Plane

Graphing a Coordinate Point

Using a Table of Values

First Differences

X and Y Intercepts & Standard Form

Classifying Slope

Calculating Slope

Slope-Intercept Form

Graphing Inequalities

Changing Forms: Standard to Slope

Introduction to Decimals

Decimals and Estimation

Decimals to Fractions

Fractions to Decimals

Scientific Notation

Repeating & Terminating Decimals

Introduction to Percent

Decimals and Percent

Finding Percent of a Number

Simple Interest

Compound Interest

Discount Solving Percent Equations

Percent of Change

Introduction to Polynomials

Adding Polynomials

Subtracting Polynomials

Multiplying Polynomials

Common Factoring

Introduction to Triangles

Triangle Classifications

Square Roots

Pythagorean Theorem

Introduction to 2D Geometry

Parallel & Perpendicular Lines

Classifying Polygons

Interior Angles of Polygons

Exterior Angles of Polygons

Perimeter

Area

Circumference of a circle

Area of a Circle

Area of Irregular Shapes

Perimeter of Irregular Shapes

Introduction to 3D Geometry

Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism

Surface Area of Pyramids

Surface Area of Cylinders

Volume of Rectangular Prisms

Volume of Cylinders & Triangular Prisms

Volume of Pyramids & Cones

Volume and Surface Area of a Sphere

Introduction to Analyzing Data

Line Graphs and Pictographs

Bar Graphs

Stem-and-Leaf Plots

Measures of Central Tendency Part I

Measures of Central Tendency Part II

Box-and-Whisker Plots

Circle Graphs

Introduction to Probability & Statistics

Ratio and Proportion

Unit Rate and Proportion

Simple Probability

Independent Events

Dependent Events

Fundamental Counting Principle

Introduction to Equations

Solving Equations – Adding & Subtracting

Solving Equations – Multiplying & Dividing

Two-Step Equations

Multi-Step & Distributive Part I

Multi-Step & Distributive Part II

Equations with Multiple Variables

Solving Percent Equations

More Applications

Rational & Irrational Numbers

Introduction to Linear Functions

Graphing Coordinate Point

Relations & Linear Functions Part I

Relations & Linear Functions Part II

Direct Variation

Slope & Rate of Change

Calculating Slope

Slope-Intercept Form

X and Y Intercepts & Standard Form

Calculate Slope Using DyDx & Intercepts

Equation of a Line

Special Lines

Cost vs. Time Functions

Distance vs. Time

Inverse Function

Introduction to Inequalities & Absolute Value Functions

Writing Solution Sets

Graphing 1D

Solving Multi-Step

Compound Inequalities

Solving Compound Inequalities

Inequalities in 2D

Absolute Value

Graphing Absolute Value Functions

Introduction to Exponents

The Product Property

The Quotient Property

Zero & Negative Exponents

Fractional Exponents

Power of a Power Property

Power of a Product Property

Power of a Fraction

Order of Operations with Exponents – Numeric

Simplifying Algebraic Expressions with Exponents

Scientific Notation Part I

Scientific Notation Part II

Scientific Notation Part III

Exponential Growth

Exponential Decay

Graphing Exponential Functions

Introduction to Polynomials

Adding Polynomials

Subtracting Polynomials

Adding & Subtracting Polynomials with More Than One Variable

Multiplying Polynomials

Common Factoring

Factoring Polynomials Using the GCF

Factoring Perfect Square Trinomials

Factoring Difference of Squares

Factoring Trinomials

Solving Equations Using Factoring

Graphing the Cubic Function

Introduction to Quadratic Functions

Graphing Quadratic Functions

Graphing Quadratic Functions – Vertex Form

Solving Equations with Square Roots

Solving by Completing the Square

Converting Quadratic Functions into Vertex Form Using Completing the Square

The Quadratic Formula

Complex Numbers

Complex Solutions

Graphing Quadratic Inequalities

Applications of Quadratics

Introduction to Rational Functions

Simplifying Rational Expressions

Adding & Subtracting Rational Expressions

Multiplying Rational Expressions

Dividing Rational Expressions

Solving Rational Equations

Graph of a Rational Function

Introduction to Radical Functions

Prime Factors

Square Roots

Simplifying Radicals – Numerical

Simplifying Radicals – Algebraic

Adding & Subtracting Radicals

Multiplying Radicals

Dividing Radicals

Solving Radical Equations

Graphing Radical Functions

Piecewise Functions

Step Functions

Introduction to Transformations

Domain of Parent Functions

Range of Parent Functions

Translations

Reflections

Vertical Stretches & Compressions

Horizontal Stretches & Compressions

Summary on Transformations

Multiple Transformations

Introduction to Systems of Linear Equations & Inequalities

Graphing Systems of Linear Equations

Graphing Inequalities

Graphing Systems of Inequalities

Evaluating Expressions Using Substitution

Solving a System of Equations by Substitution

Solving Systems of Equations by Elimination

Identifying Types of Systems Using Equations

Writing an Equation

Applications of Systems of Equations & Inequalities

Systems of Linear & Quadratic Equations

System of Non-Linear Equations

Introduction to Trigonometry

Sine Ratio

Cosine Ratio

Tangent Ratio

Graphing the Sine Function

Graphing the Cosine Function

Introduction to Sequences

Sequences in General

Arithmetic Sequences

Geometric Sequences

Introduction to Statistics

Histograms

Measures of Central Tendencies Part I

Measures of Central Tendencies Part II

Scatter Plots

Box and Whisker Plots

Measures of Dispersion Part I

Measures of Dispersion Part II

Introduction to Logic & Proofs

Conditions & Sets

Conditional Statements

Equivalence Properties

Writing Proofs

Introduction to Geometry

Segments, Rays & Length

Segment Addition Postulate

Overlapping Segments Theorem

Congruent Segments

Angles & Measure

Angle Additional Postulate

Congruent Angles

Angle Pairs

Lines, Planes & Transversals

Transversals and Angle Pairs

Transversals & Parallel Lines

Perpendicular Lines

Introduction to Triangles

Classifying Triangles by Side Length

Classifying Triangles by Angles

The Triangle Sum Theorem

The Exterior Angle Theorem

Ratio & Proportions

Similar Triangles

Using Similar Triangles to Solve Problems

Congruent Triangles Part I

Congruent Triangles Part II

Pythagorean Theorem

Introduction to Polygons

Classification of Polygons

Quadrilaterals – Rectangles

Quadrilaterals – Parallelograms

Quadrilaterals – Trapezoids

Interior & Exterior Angles

Similar Polygons

Introduction to Circles

Properties of Tangents I

Property of Tangents II

Property of Tangents III

Arcs & Central Angles

Arc Additional Postulate

Introduction to Perimeter

Perimeter of Triangles

Perimeter of Quadrilaterals

Perimeter of Polygons

Circumference of a Circle

Perimeter of Irregular Shapes

Introduction to Area

Area of Squares & Rectangles

Area of Triangles

Area of Parallelograms

Area of Trapezoids

Area of a Circle

Area of a Sector

Area of Regular Polygons

Area of Irregular Polygons

Introduction to Geometry in the Coordinate Plane

Distance on the Coordinate Plane

Midpoint Formula

Length of Polygons in the Coordinate Plane

Perimeter in the Coordinate Plane

Area in the Coordinate Plane

Equation of a Circle

Calculating Slopes with Rise Over Run

Calculating Slope Using Dy/Dx

Slope Intercept Form of a Line

Parallel & Perpendicular Lines

Quadrilaterals

Parabolas in the Coordinate Plane

Triangles and Altitudes

Triangles & Medians

Triangles & Perpendicular Bisectors

Triangles & Angles Bisectors

Solving Systems of Equations by Substitution

Solving Systems of Equations by Elimination

Triangles & the Orthocentre

Triangles & the Centroid

Triangles & the Circumcentre

Incentre

Primary Trigonometry Ratios

Finding an Unknown Angle

Special Triangles

Law of Sines

Law of Cosines

Trigonometry & Area

Arcs & Chords Part I

Arcs & Chords Part II

Arcs & Chords Part III

Arcs & Chords Part IV

Inscribed Angles

Tangents, Secants and Angles Part I

Tangents, Secants and Angles Part II

Tangents, Secants and Angles Part III

Radian Measure

Introduction to Transformations

Translations

Reflections

Rotations

Dilations

Multiple Transformations & Applications

Introduction to 3D Geometry

Volume of Rectangular Prisms

Volume of Other Prisms

Volume of Pyramids

Volume of Cylinders

Volume of Cones

Volume of Spheres

Density

Introduction to Surface Area

Surface Area of a Prism

Surface Area of Pyramids

Surface Area of Cylinders

Surface Area of Cones

Surface Area of Spheres

Introduction to Probability

Simple Probability

Fundamental Counting Principle

Independent Events

Dependent Events

Compound Probability

Permutations

Combinations

Experimental & Theoretical Probability

Set Theory & Venn Diagrams

Set Theory – Intersection and Union

Set Theory – Disjoint & Complement

Probability Applications

Introduction to Exponents

The Product Property

The Quotient Property

Zero and Negative Exponents

Fractional Exponents

Power of a Power Property

Power of a Product Property

Power of a Fraction

Simplifying Algebraic Expressions with Exponents

Introduction to Systems of Linear Equations & Inequalities

Solving a System of Equations by Substitution

Solving a System of Equations by Elimination

Graphing Systems of Linear Equations

Graphing Systems of Inequalities

Linear Programming

Introduction to Imaginary & Complex Numbers

Adding & Subtracting Complex Numbers

Multiplying Complex Numbers

Complex Conjugates

Dividing Complex Numbers

Absolute Value & Complex Numbers

Introduction to Functions

Function Notation & Evaluation

Domain of a Function & Interval Notation

Range of a Function & Interval Notation

Adding & Subtracting Functions

Multiplying & Dividing Functions

Composition of Functions

Inverse Functions

Composition & Inverse

Piecewise Functions

Step Functions

Introduction to Polynomials

Adding & Subtracting Polynomials

Multiplying Polynomials

Dividing Polynomials Using Long Division

Dividing Polynomials Using Synthetic Division

Remainder Theorem

Factor Theorem

Factor Using GCF & Grouping

Factoring Using Difference of Squares

Factoring Perfect Square Trinomials

Factoring Trinomials with a Positive or Negative Constant

Factoring Using the Sum or Difference of Cubes

Solving Equations Using Factoring & the Zero Product Property

Introduction to Quadratic Functions

Graphing Quadratic Functions in Vertex Form

Solving Quadratic Equations with Square

Roots

Solving Quadratics by Completing the Square

The Quadratic Formula

Converting Quadratic Functions to Vertex Form

Graphing Quadratic Inequalities

Applications of Quadratics

Finding a Polynomial Given the Roots

Location Principle & Multiplicity of Zeros

Rational Root Theorem

The Complex Conjugate Root Theorem

Fundamental Theorem of Algebra & Descartes Rule of Signs

Graphing Polynomials

Introduction to Exponential & Logarithmic Properties

Exponential Growth

Exponential Decay

Logarithmic Functions

Evaluating Logarithmic Functions

Product Property of Logarithms

Quotient Property of Logarithms

Power Property of Logarithms

Exponential-Logarithmic Inverse Properties

Application of Logarithms

The Natural Exponential Function

The Natural Logarithm

Solving Logarithmic Equations

Introduction to Rational Functions

Direct Variation

Inverse Variation

Joint & Combined Variation

Simplifying Rational Expressions

Adding & Subtracting Rational Expressions

Multiplying Rational Expressions

Dividing Rational Expressions

Complex Fractions

Solving Rational Equations

Graph of a Rational Function Part I

Graph of a Rational Function Part II

Introduction to Radical Functions

Simplifying Radicals – Numerical

Simplifying Radicals – Algebraic

Adding and Subtracting Radicals

Multiplying Radicals

Dividing Radicals

Solving Radical Equations

Graphing Radical Functions

Introduction to Conic Sections

Parabolas Part I

Parabolas Part II

Circles Part I

Circles Part II

Ellipses Part I

Ellipses Part II

Hyperbolas Part I

Hyperbolas Part II

Solving Non-Linear Systems

Angles in Standard Position

Radian Measure

Special Triangles & Exact Values

Reciprocal Ratios

Sine Law

Cosine Law

Trigonometric Identities

Graphing Sine & Cosine Functions

Graphing Tangent & Cotangent Functions

Graphing Secant & Cosecant Functions

Applications of Trigonometry Functions

Modelling Trigonometry Functions

Introduction to Series & Patterns

Arithmetic Series

Finite Geometric Series

Infinite Geometric Series

Pascal’s Triangle

Binomial Theorem

Introduction to Statistics

Independent & Dependent Events

Measures of Central Tendency

Range & Mean Deviation

Standard Deviation & Variance

Sampling

Normal Distribution

Margin of Error

Introduction to Functions

Domain of a Function and Interval Notation

Range of a Function and Interval Notation

Composition of Functions

Inverse of Functions

Introduction to Quadratic Functions

Graphing Quadratic Functions in Vertex Form

Solving Quadratic Equations with Square Roots

Solving Quadratics by Completing the Square

Converting to Vertex Form by Completing the Square

Graphing Quadratic Inequalities

2.1 Introduction to Polynomials

2.2 Finding a Polynomial Given the Roots

2.3 Dividing Polynomials Using Long Division

2.4 Dividing Polynomials Using Synthetic Division

2.5 Remainder Theorem/Factor Theorem

2.6 Location principle & Multiplicity of Zeros

2.7 Rational Root Theorem

2.8 Complex Conjugate Root Theorem

2.9 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra & Descartes Rule of signs

2.10 Graphing Polynomials

Introduction to Rational Functions

Graphing Rational Functions

Graphing Rational Functions Part II

Slant Asymptotes

Parabolic Asymptotes

Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions

Solving Rational Equations

Introduction to Exponential & Logarithmic Functions

Graphing Exponential Functions

Logarithmic Functions and Change of Base Formula

Properties of Logarithms

Exponential/Logarithmic Inverse Property

Natural Exponentials & Logarithms

Solving Exponential Equations

Solving Logarithmic Equations

Fitting Log Functions to Data

Introduction to Vectors

Vectors in Two Dimensions

Adding & Subtracting Vectors

Multiplying Vectors by a Scalar

Vector Components

Vector Notation

Operations in Vector Noation

Dot Product

Introduction to Matrices

Basic Matrix Operations

Matrix Multiplication

Determinant of 2×2 Matrices

Determinant of 3×3 Matrices

Inverse of Matrices

Elementary Row Operations & Augmented Matrices

Using Matrices to Solve 2×2 Systems

Using Matrices to Solve 3×3 Systems

Introduction to Complex

Adding and Subtracting Complex Numbers

Multiplying Complex Numbers

Complex Conjugate & Dividing

The Complex Plane

Modulus of Complex Numbers

Distance in the Complex Plane

Midpoint in the Complex Plane

Introduction to Trigonometric Functions

Radian Measure

Standard Position & Reference Angles

Special Triangles and Exact Ratios

Graphing the Sine and Cosine Functions

Graphing the Tangent and Cotangent Functions

Graphing the Secant and Cosecant Functions

Applications of Trigonometric Functions

Modelling Trigonometric Functions

Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Introduction to Analytic Trigonometry

Cofunction, Periodicity and Negative Angle Identities

Addition and Subtraction Identities

Double and Half-Angle Identities

Product to Sum Identities

Solving Trigonometric Equations Algebraically

Solving Trigonometric Equations with Identities

Introduction to Conic Sections

Parabolas

Parabolas Part II

Circles

Circles Part II

Ellipses

Ellipses Part II

Hyperbolas

Hyperbolas Part II

Solving Non Linear Systems

Parametric Equations

Parametric Equations of Conic Sections

Introduction to Polar Coordinates

Converting Rectangular to Polar Coordinates

Converting Polar to Rectangular Coordinates

Polar Equations and Graphs

Eccentricity of Conic Sections

Polar Equations of Conic Sections

Complex Numbers in Polar Notation

Multiplication and Division with Polar Notation

DeMoivre’s Theorem

Introduction to Sequences and Series

Sequences & Series

Arithmetic Sequences

Arithmetic Series

Geometric Sequences

Finite Geometric Series

Infinite Geometric Series

Permutations and Combinations

Pascal’s Triangle

Binomial Theorem

Introduction to Calculus

Limits and Continuity

Limits Involving Infinity

Slope of a Tangent Line

The Power Rule

The Product and Quotient Rules

The Chain Rule

Applications of Derivatives

Antiderivatives

Integrals and the Area Under a Curve

In **Grade 6 Mathematics**, students will expand their knowledge of number sense, operations, patterns and relationships, equations and inequalities, data literacy, probability, geometric and spatial reasoning, and measurement.

In **Grade 7 Mathematics**, students will expand their knowledge of number sense, operations, patterns and relationships, equations and inequalities, data literacy, probability, geometric and spatial reasoning, and measurement.

In **Grade 8 Mathematics**, students will expand their knowledge of number sense, operations, patterns and relationships, equations and inequalities, data literacy, probability, geometric and spatial reasoning, and measurement.

In **Principles of Mathematics, Grade 9**; students will expand their knowledge of number sense and algebra, analytic geometry, and measurement. Students will also be introduced to linear relations, where they will explore the equation of a line in algebraic and data management applications.

In **Principles of Mathematics, Grade 10**; students will expand their knowledge of geometry and trigonometry. Students will also be introduced to quadratic relations, where they will explore parabolas in algebraic and graphical applications.

In **Functions, Grade 11**; students will expand their knowledge of algebra, exponents, and trigonometry. Where previous courses covered relations, this course formalizes the algebra of functions. Students will learn about the characteristics of functions, exponential functions, discrete functions, and trigonometric functions.

In **Advanced Functions, Grade 12**; students will expand their knowledge of exponential and trigonometric functions to study logarithmic functions and analytic trigonometry. Students will also learn more advanced characteristics of functions to study rates of change and combinations of functions.